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Übersetzung im Kontext von „the Huns“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Scholars suggest a connection between the Huns and the Turks, but have no. Kill the Huns - Tötet die Hunnen!: Geheimdienste, Propaganda und Subversion hinter den Kulissen des Ersten Weltkrieges: tldwithdnssecandipv6.se: Roewer, Helmut. THE HUNS über sich. Zitat: "3 ehemalige krieger auf der suche nach ihrer großen liebe BRUNHILDE sie ist zwar nicht hübsch aber für die hunnen die perfekte. This is a history of the Huns in Europe from their first attacks on the Goths north of the Black Sea to the collapse of their central European empire after the death. Many translated example sentences containing "King of the Huns" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations.

Thehuns

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Liszt - Battle of the Huns

They also used battering rams to break through Roman defense walls. The Huns killed men, women and children alike and decimated almost everything and everyone in their path.

They looted and plundered and seldom took prisoners; however, when they did, they enslaved them. The Huns came on the historical scene in Europe during the late 4th century A.

D when, in A. Two years later, they attacked the Ostrogoths, an eastern tribe of Germanic Goths who harassed the Roman Empire by frequently attacking their territories.

By , the Huns had attacked the Visigoths the western tribe of Goths , and forced them to seek sanctuary within the Roman Empire.

Some of the Alans, Goths and Visigoths were conscripted into the Hunnic infantry. As the Huns dominated Goth and Visigoth lands, they earned a reputation as the new barbarians in town and seemed unstoppable.

By A. Some Roman Christians believed they were devils arrived straight from hell. But by , Octar had been killed in battle and Rugila ruled alone. In the 5th century, the Huns changed from a group of nomadic warrior tribes to a somewhat settled civilization living in the Great Hungarian Plain in eastern Europe.

They had amassed an enormous army made up of cavalry and infantry troops from various backgrounds. King Rugila died in and was succeeded by his two nephews—brothers Attila and Bleda.

Attila was described as a short man with a large head and thin beard who knew both Latin and Goth and was a master negotiator.

Shortly after starting his reign, he negotiated a peace treaty with the Eastern Roman Empire in which the Romans paid him gold in exchange for peace.

But eventually the Romans reneged on the deal and in , Attila and his army stormed their way through the Balkans and the Danubian frontier.

Unable to break through the walls of the city, Attila formed another peace agreement: he would leave Constantinople alone in exchange for an annual tribute of 2, pounds of gold, a staggering sum.

In , Attila murdered Bleda—supposedly to prevent Bleda from murdering him first—and became sole ruler of the Huns. He then launched another campaign against the Eastern Roman Empire and thundered his way through the Balkans.

Attila invaded Gaul, which included modern-day France, northern Italy and western Germany, in But the Romans had wised up and allied with the Visigoths and other barbarian tribes to finally stop the Huns in their tracks.

According to legend, the night before the battle Attila consulted sacrificed bones and saw that thousands of his army would fall in the fight.

The next day, his premonition came true. The foes met on the battlefield in the Catalaunian Plains of eastern France. The Romans and Visigoths had learned much from previous encounters with the Huns and fought them hand-to-hand and on horseback.

After hours of ferocious fighting that lasted well into the dark of night, tens of thousands of soldiers were dead, and the Roman alliance had forced the Hun army to retreat.

Attila and his army returned to Italy and continued ravaging cities. Paul and St. Whether because of his fear of the Pope and his saintly allies, or simply because his troops were stretched too thin and weakened by malaria, Attila decided to pull out of Italy and return to the Great Hungarian Plain.

When Marcian, the new emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, refused to pay Attila a previously-agreed-to annual tribute in , Attila regrouped and planned to attack Constantinople.

But before he could strike, he was found dead—on his wedding night after marrying his latest bride—by choking on his own blood while in a drunken stupor.

Attila had made his oldest son Ellac his successor, but all his sons fought a civil war for power until the Hun Empire was divided between them.

Without Attila at the helm, however, the weakened Huns fell apart and were no longer a major threat. Attila the Hun. Barbarians-The Huns.

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The Han Dynasty ruled China from B. Though tainted by deadly dramas within the royal court, it is also known for its promotion of Confucianism as the state religion and opening the Silk Road trade route to Europe, The Ming Dynasty ruled China from to A.

Led by Ellak , Attila's favored son and ruler of the Akatziri , the Huns engaged the Gepid king Ardaric at the Battle of Nedao , who led a coalition of Germanic Peoples to overthrow Hunnic imperial authority.

The Amali Goths would revolt the same year under Valamir , allegedly defeating the Huns in a separate engagement. At the same time, the Huns were also dealing with the arrival of more Oghur Turkic-speaking peoples from the East, including the Oghurs , Saragurs , Onogurs , and the Sabirs.

In , the Saragurs defeated the Akatziri, or Akatir Huns, and asserted dominance in the Pontic region. The western Huns under Dengizich experienced difficulties in , when they were defeated by Valamir in a war against the Sadages , a people allied with the Huns.

He was surrounded by the Romans and besieged, and came to an agreement that they would surrender if they were given land and his starving forces given food.

During the negotiations, a Hun in service of the Romans named Chelchel persuaded the enemy Goths to attack their Hun overlords.

The Romans, under their General Aspar and with the help of his bucellarii , then attacked the quarreling Goths and Huns, defeating them.

After Dengizich's death, the Huns seem to have been absorbed by other ethnic groups such as the Bulgars. Some scholars also argue that another group identified in ancient sources as Huns, the North Caucasian Huns , were genuine Huns.

The Huns have traditionally been described as pastoral nomads , living off of herding and moving from pasture to pasture to graze their animals.

Maenchen-Helfen notes that pastoral nomads or "seminomads" typically alternate between summer pastures and winter quarters: while the pastures may vary, the winter quarters always remained the same.

Ammianus Marcellinus says that the majority of the Huns' diet came from the meat of these animals, [79] with Maenchen-Helfen arguing, on the basis of what is known of other steppe nomads, that they likely mostly ate mutton, along with sheep's cheese and milk.

Ancient sources uniformly deny that the Huns practiced any sort of agriculture. As a nomadic people, the Huns spent a great deal of time riding horses: Ammianus claimed that the Huns "are almost glued to their horses", [86] [87] Zosimus claimed that they "live and sleep on their horses", [88] and Sidonius claimed that "[s]carce had an infant learnt to stand without his mother's aid when a horse takes him on his back".

Besides horses, ancient sources mention that the Huns used wagons for transportation, which Maenchen-Helfen believes were primarily used to transport their tents, booty, and the old people, women, and children.

The Huns received a large amount of gold from the Romans, either in exchange for fighting for them as mercenaries or as tribute.

Civilians and soldiers captured by the Huns might also be ransomed back, or else sold to Roman slave dealers as slaves.

Some slaves were even used as warriors. The Huns also traded with the Romans. Thompson argued that this trade was very large scale, with the Huns trading horses, furs, meat, and slaves for Roman weapons, linen, and grain, and various other luxury goods.

Christopher Atwood has suggested that the reason for the original Hunnic incursion into Europe may have been to establish an outlet to the Black Sea for the Sogdian merchants under their rule, who were involved in the trade along the Silk Road to China.

Hunnic governmental structure has long been debated. Peter Heather argues that the Huns were a disorganized confederation in which leaders acted completely independently and that eventually established a ranking hierarchy, much like Germanic societies.

Ammianus said that the Huns of his day had no kings, but rather that each group of Huns instead had a group of leading men primates for times of war.

Thompson supposes that even in war the leading men had little actual power. The first Hunnic ruler known by name is Uldin. Thompson takes Uldin's sudden disappearance after he was unsuccessful at war as a sign that the Hunnic kingship was "democratic" at this time rather than a permanent institution.

There are two sources for the material culture and art of the Huns: ancient descriptions and archaeology. Unfortunately, the nomadic nature of Hun society means that they have left very little in the archaeological record.

Kim thus cautions that it is difficult to assign any artifact to the Huns ethnically. Archaeological finds have produced a large number of cauldrons that have since the work of Paul Reinecke in been identified as having been produced by the Huns.

Thompson is skeptical that the Huns cast them themselves, [] but Maenchen-Helfen argues that "[t]he idea that the Hun horsemen fought their way to the walls of Constantinople and to the Marne with bartered and captured swords is absurd.

Both ancient sources and archaeological finds from graves confirm that the Huns wore elaborately decorated golden or gold-plated diadems.

Archaeological finds indicate that the Huns wore gold plaques as ornaments on their clothing, as well as imported glass beads.

Ammianus reports that the Huns had no buildings, [] but in passing mentions that the Huns possessed tents and wagons.

Various archaeologists have argued that the Huns, or the nobility of the Huns, as well as Germanic tribes influenced by them, practiced artificial cranial deformation , the process of artificially lengthening the skulls of babies by binding them.

A variety of languages were spoken within the Hun Empire. Priscus noted that the Hunnic language differed from other languages spoken at Attila's court.

As to the Hunnic language itself, only three words are recorded in ancient sources as being "Hunnic," all of which appear to be from an Indo-European language.

The elites of the Huns practiced polygamy , [] while the commoners were probably monogamous. Priscus also attests that the widow of Attila's brother Bleda was in command of a village that the Roman ambassadors rode through: her territory may have included a larger area.

Almost nothing is known about the religion of the Huns. John Man argues that the Huns of Attila's time likely worshipped the sky and the steppe deity Tengri , who is also attested as having been worshipped by the Xiongnu.

Maenchen-Helfen argues that humans appear to have been sacrificed at Attila's funerary rite, recorded in Jordanes under the name strava. In addition to these pagan beliefs, there are numerous attestations of Huns converting to Christianity and receiving Christian missionaries.

Hun warfare as a whole is not well studied. One of the principal sources of information on Hunnic warfare is Ammianus Marcellinus, who includes an extended description of the Huns' methods of war:.

They also sometimes fight when provoked, and then they enter the battle drawn up in wedge-shaped masses, while their medley of voices makes a savage noise.

And as they are lightly equipped for swift motion, and unexpected in action, they purposely divide suddenly into scattered bands and attack, rushing about in disorder here and there, dealing terrific slaughter; and because of their extraordinary rapidity of movement they are never seen to attack a rampart or pillage an enemy's camp.

And on this account you would not hesitate to call them the most terrible of all warriors, because they fight from a distance with missiles having sharp bone, instead of their usual points, joined to the shafts with wonderful skill; then they gallop over the intervening spaces and fight hand to hand with swords, regardless of their own lives; and while the enemy are guarding against wounds from the sabre-thrusts, they throw strips of cloth plaited into nooses over their opponents and so entangle them that they fetter their limbs and take from them the power of riding or walking.

Based on Ammianus' description, Maenchen-Helfen argues that the Huns' tactics did not differ markedly from those used by other nomadic horse archers.

This title would then have been inherited as it was passed down the clan. Hunnic armies relied on their high mobility and "a shrewd sense of when to attack and when to withdraw".

This is mentioned by the writers Zosimus and Agathias. The Huns' nomadic lifestyle encouraged features such as excellent horsemanship, while the Huns trained for war by frequent hunting.

The Huns are almost always noted as fighting alongside non-Hunnic, Germanic or Iranian subject peoples or, in earlier times, allies.

A major source of information on steppe warfare from the time of the Huns comes from the 6th-century Strategikon , which describes the warfare of "Dealing with the Scythians, that is, Avars, Turks, and others whose way of life resembles that of the Hunnish peoples.

The Huns brought large numbers of horses to use as replacements and to give the impression of a larger army on campaign. The Strategikon states the Huns also stationed sentries at significant distances and in constant contact with each other in order to prevent surprise attacks.

According to the Strategikon , the Huns did not form a battle line in the method that the Romans and Persians used, but in irregularly sized divisions in a single line, and keep a separate force nearby for ambushes and as a reserve.

The Strategikon also states the Huns used deep formations with a dense and even front. The Strategikon also makes note of the wedge shaped formations mentioned by Ammianus, and corroborated as familial regiments by Maenchen-Helfen.

Peter Heather notes that the Huns were able to successfully besiege walled cities and fortresses in their campaign of they were thus capable of building siege engines.

The Strategikon states the Huns typically used mail , swords, bows, and lances, and that most Hunnic warriors were armed with both the bow and lance and used them interchangeably as needed.

It also states the Huns used quilted linen, wool, or sometimes iron barding for their horses and also wore quilted coifs and kaftans.

These earlier blades date as far back as the 1st century AD, with the first of the newer type appearing in Eastern Europe being the Wien-Simmerming example, dated to the late 4th century AD.

They typically had gold foil hilts, gold sheet scabbards, and scabbard fittings decorated in the polychrome style.

The sword was carried in the "Iranian style" attached to a swordbelt, rather than on a baldric. The most famous weapon of the Huns is the Qum Darya-type composite recurve bow, often called the "Hunnish bow".

This bow was invented some time in the 3rd or 2nd centuries BC with the earliest finds near Lake Baikal, but spread across Eurasia long before the Hunnic migration.

Such trilobate arrowheads are believed to be more accurate and have better penetrating power or capacity to injure than flat arrowheads.

The most famous examples come from Wien-Simmerming, although more fragments have been found in the Northern Balkans and Carpathian regions.

After the fall of the Hunnic Empire, various legends arose concerning the Huns. Among these are a number of Christian hagiographic legends in which the Huns play a role.

In an anonymous medieval biography of Pope Leo I , Attila's march into Italy in is stopped because, when he meets Leo outside Rome, the apostles Peter and Paul appear to him holding swords over his head and threatening to kill him unless he follows the pope's command to turn back.

Ursula and her virgins killed by the Huns with arrows after they refuse the Huns' sexual advances. Afterwards, however, the souls of the slaughtered virgins form a heavenly army that drives away the Huns and saves Cologne.

The Huns also play an important role in medieval Germanic legends, which frequently convey versions of events from the migration period and were originally transmitted orally.

This may indicate that Bede viewed the Anglo-Saxons as descending partially from the Huns. The Huns and Attila also form central figures in the two most-widespread Germanic legendary cycles, that of the Nibelungs and of Dietrich von Bern the historical Theoderic the Great.

The Nibelung legend, particularly as recorded in the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Völsunga saga , as well as in the German Nibelungenlied , connects the Huns and Attila and in the Norse tradition, Attila's death to the destruction of the Burgundian kingdom on the Rhine in In medieval German legend, the Huns were identified with the Hungarians, with their capital of Etzelburg Attila-city being identified with Esztergom or Buda.

Beginning in the High Middle Ages, Hungarian sources have claimed descent from or a close relationship between the Hungarians Magyars and the Huns.

The claim appears to have first arisen in non-Hungarian sources and only gradually been taken up by the Hungarians themselves because of its negative connotations.

Modern scholars largely dismiss these claims. The Hunnish origin of the Magyars is, of course, a fiction, just like the Trojan origin of the French or any of the other origo gentis theories fabricated at much the same time.

The Magyars in fact originated from the Ugrian branch of the Finno-Ugrian peoples; in the course of their wanderings in the steppes of Eastern Europe they assimilated a variety of especially Iranian and different Turkic cultural and ethnic elements, but they had neither genetic nor historical links to the Huns.

Generally, the proof of the relationship between the Hungarian and the Finno-Ugric languages in the nineteenth century is taken to have scientifically disproven the Hunnic origins of the Hungarians.

While the notion that the Hungarians are descended from the Huns has been rejected by mainstream scholarship, the idea has continued to exert a relevant influence on Hungarian nationalism and national identity.

On 27 July , during the Boxer Rebellion in China , Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave the order to act ruthlessly towards the rebels: "Mercy will not be shown, prisoners will not be taken.

Just as a thousand years ago, the Huns under Attila won a reputation of might that lives on in legends, so may the name of Germany in China, such that no Chinese will even again dare so much as to look askance at a German.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hun disambiguation. Further information: Origin of the Huns. Main article: History of the Huns.

Further information: Hunnic language. We find that the Huns have increased shared drift with West Eurasians compared to the Xiongnu Overall, our data show that the Xiongnu confederation was genetically heterogeneous, and that the Huns emerged following minor male-driven East Asian gene flow into the preceding Sakas that they invaded.

All Hun age individuals revealed admixture derived from European and East Asian ancestors. Moreover, haplogroups Q1a and N1a were also major components of these nomadic groups, reinforcing the view that Huns and thus Avars and Hungarian invaders might derive from the Xiongnu as was proposed until the eighteenth century but strongly disputed since Some Xiongnu paternal and maternal haplotypes could be found in the gene pool of the Huns, the Avars, as well as Mongolian and Hungarian conquerors.

Otto The American Journal of Philology. Soviet Archaeology. Deutsches Wörterbuch. Leipzig: Hirzel. Retrieved 26 October Eurasian Geography and Economics.

In Boeck, Brian J. Cambridge University Press. International Journal of Eurasian Studies. Essays in Anglo-Saxon History. London: Hambledon Press.

In Austin, David; Alcock, Leslie eds. London: Psychology Press. Nature Research. Retrieved 11 April Dennis, George T. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Central Asiatic Journal. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. Ayton, Andrew ed. The realm of St. London, New York: I.

Oxford: Oxford University. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. In di Cosmo, Nicolo ed. Warfare in Inner Asian History Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill.

Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, — Heroic legends of the North: an introduction to the Nibelung and Dietrich cycles. New York: Garland.

The Goths. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. New York: Oxford University Press. Sente Servas. Münster: agenda.

Rome and the Sword. Mierow, Charles Christopher Mierow ed. The Gothic History of Jordanes.

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